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Saturday, October 30, 2010

Alzheimer Disease - "Brain Aging"

Also called: AD

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities.

This was found while wandering online at: http://www.rejuvenal.info/Terminology/alzheimer-disease-prevention-cure-reverse-dementia-treatment-support-stages.html

They have quite the database - check them out!!

The picture on the left shows a healthy brain on the top and a AD-brain below. The brain volume shrinks significantly with the progression of the disease.

AD begins slowly. It first involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. People with AD may have trouble remembering things that happened recently or names of people they know. Over time, symptoms get worse. People may not recognize family members or have trouble speaking, reading or writing. They may forget how to brush their teeth or comb their hair. Later on, they may become anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Eventually, they need total care. This can cause great stress for family members who must care for them.

AD usually begins after age 60. The risk goes up as you get older. Your risk is also higher if a family member has had the disease.

No medical treatment can stop the disease so far. However, some drugs may help keep symptoms from getting worse for a limited time. Food supplements seems to offer better releave without side effects. They never harm and are very good to prevent AD. Most important are Omega-3's, specially DHA, Curcumin, Green tea extract and Bacopa, ALC and those improving the immune system. More and more studies show that with these and other supplements there are possibilities for even reversing the Alzheimer disease. Follow the links to read more about the latest research.

Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease: the association between carotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity.

Wang W, Shinto L, Connor WE, Quinn JF. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 Feb;13(1):31-8. Links

Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA. wangwe@ohsu.edu

Carotenoids are fat-soluble antioxidants that may protect polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids from oxidation, and are potentially important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention and treatment. Fasting plasma carotenoids were measured in 36 AD subjects and 10 control subjects by HPLC. Correlations between plasma carotenoid levels, red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity were examined in AD patients.Moderately severe AD patients (MMSE=16-19) had much lower plasma levels of two major carotenoids: lutein and beta-carotene, compared to mild AD patients (MMSE=24-27) or controls. Among AD patients, variables (lutein, beta-carotene, RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and LDL-cholesterol) were significantly correlated with MMSE. A lower MMSE score was associated with lower lutein, beta-carotene and RBC DHA levels, and a higher LDL-cholesterol level. These variables explained the majority of variation in dementia severity (55% of variance in MMSE). Lutein, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were positively correlated with RBC DHA in AD patients. The association between higher carotenoids levels and DHA and higher MMSE scores, supports a protective role of both types of nutrients in AD. These findings suggest targeting multiple specific nutrients, lutein, beta-carotene, and DHA in strategies to slow the rate of cognitive decline.

Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain.

Shukitt-Hale B, Lau FC, Joseph JA. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):636-41. Epub 2008 Jan 23.

USDA-ARS Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA. barbara.shukitt-hale@ars.usda.gov

The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, superimposed on a declining nervous system, could exacerbate the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care would be a likely outcome. This means that unless some way is found to reduce these age-related decrements in neuronal function, health-care costs will continue to rise exponentially. Thus, it is extremely important to explore methods to retard or reverse age-related neuronal deficits, as well as their subsequent behavioral manifestations, to increase healthy aging.

In this regard, consumption of diets rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory polyphenolics, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, may lower the risk of developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Research suggests that the polyphenolic compounds found in berry fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, may exert their beneficial effects either through their ability to lower oxidative stress and inflammation or directly by altering the signaling involved in neuronal communication, calcium buffering ability, neuroprotective stress shock proteins, plasticity, and stress signaling pathways. These interventions, in turn, may exert protection against age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits of these interventions in rodent models and to describe the putative molecular mechanisms involved in their benefits.

Emerging role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a review of their intracellular targets.

Ramassamy C. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Sep 1;545(1):51-64. Epub 2006 Jun 17

INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boulevard, Pointe-claire, Québec, H9R 1G6/ INAF, Univ. Laval. Québec, QC, Canada. charles.ramassamy@iaf.inrs.ca

Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. Thus antioxidants have been studied for their effectiveness in reducing these deleterious effects and neuronal death in many in vitro and in vivo studies.

Polyphenolic antioxidants and Alzheimer

Increasing number of studies demonstrated the efficacy of polyphenolic antioxidants from fruits and vegetables to reduce or to block neuronal death occurring in the pathophysiology of these disorders. These studies revealed that other mechanisms than the antioxidant activities could be involved in the neuroprotective effect of these phenolic compounds. We will review some of these mechanisms and particular emphasis will be given to polyphenolic compounds from green tea, the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, blueberries extracts, wine components and curcumin.

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